Table of Contents

Morphological characters and character states used to estimate phylogeny of the Natalidae

1. Coronoid process of dentary, height relative to articular condyle: (0) higher than condyle; (1) same level as condyle; (2) lower than condyle
2. In lateral view, angular process of dentary projects: (0) at or below level of occlusal plane of toothrow; (1) above level of occlusal plane
3. In lateral view, base of angular process of dentary is situated: (0) ventral to condyle; (1) at a level between condyle and tip of coronoid process
4. Angular process shape: (0) straight; (1) slightly curved; (2) strongly curved
5. In posterior view, angular process is: (0) in same vertical plane as condyle and ascending ramus; (1) slightly flared laterally; (2) strongly flared laterally
6. Position of mandibular foramen: (0) opens above level of alveolar margin of lower toothrow; (1) opens at same level as alveolar margin
7. Size of anterior mental foramen (ventral to lower incisors): (0) large, extending distally beneath i2; (1) small, extending distally beneath i1
8. Spacing of lower incisor alveoli: (0) alveoli of i1 and i2 nearly coalesced, small gap between i2 and i3; (1) alveoli of i1, i2, and i3 evenly spaced
9. Shape of articular surface of mandibular symphysis in medial view: (0) rounded oval with small ventral projection; (1) narrower, elongate oval with long posteroventral projection; (2) elongate oval with no ventral projection
10. Crown of p3: (0) having two posterior crests separated by a concavity; (1) having one posterior or lingual crest
11. Occlusal outline of p3: (0) long and strongly laterally compressed; (1) shorter and broader
12. Alignment of paraconid of m1: (0) in line with other lingual cusps; (1) situated slightly labial in relation to a line drawn through metaconid and entoconid
13. Carnassial-like notches in cristid obliqua and postcristid of lower molars: (0) absent; (1) weakly developed; (2) strongly developed
14. Labial cingular cusp of P4: (0) absent; (1) weak; (2) strong
15. P4 occlusal outline: (0) indented anterolingually; (1) not indented anterolingually
16. P4 lingual outline: (0) broadly rounded; (1) narrowed anteroposteriorly
17. Mesostyle on upper molars: (0) normal; (1) extended anteromedially as a curved mesostylar crest
18. Upper molars ectocingulum posterior to parastyle and anterior to metastyle: (0) present but weak; (1) absent
19. M1 postprotocrista: (0) extends only to "metaconule" region (i.e., a true metaconule is absent), does not reach metacone nor metacingulum; (1) becomes confluent with distal cingulum (metacingulum); (2) joins lingual base of metacone; (3) extends as ridge onto relatively well developed talon
20. Cochlea posteroventral tubercle: (0) absent; (1) present, with lateral hook; (2) present, with lateral and medial projections; (3) present but weakly developed
21. Cochlea: (0) makes about 2 1/4 turns; (1) makes about 2 1/2 turns; (2) makes more than 2 1/2 turns
22. Epitrochlea of humerus: (0) with no medial process; (1) with weak medial process; (2) with prominent medial process
23. Distal spinous process of humerus: (0) separated from medial edge of trochlea by small notch; (1) no notch
24. Shape of spinous process of humerus: (0) short with blunt tip; (1) intermediate in length with lateral projection at tip; (2) long and curved laterad; (3) long and nearly straight
25. Braincase shape: (0) inflated; (1) relatively uninflated
26. Cranial flexion (rostral-forehead angle): 0) forehead not sharply elevated above rostrum (>135°); (1) more sharply elevated above rostrum (<135°)
27. Upper canine height relative to P4: (0) taller than P4; (1) about equal to P4
28. Lower canine height relative to p4 (0) taller than p4; (1) about equal to p4
29. P2 size: (0) normal; (1) greatly reduced
30. Rostrum length: (0) longer than or equal to braincase; (1) shorter than braincase
31. Sides of rostrum: (0) not markedly inflated; (1) markedly inflated
32. Posterior border of palate: (0) not or slightly emarginated; (1) deeply emarginated
33. Elongated styliform process of ectotympanic: (0) absent; (1) present, extends anteromedially and contacts pterygoid process
34. Anterior portion (maxillary branch) of zygomatic arch: (0) shallow and gracile; (1) deeper and more robust
35. Cleft between premaxillae: (0) deep, widely separating I1s; (1) tiny, I1s nearly meet at midline
36. Basisphenoid pits: (0) absent or shallow, double; (1) moderately deep, double; (2) deep and steep-sided, single
37. Auditory bullae: (0) not enlarged, covers half or less of the periotic; (1) greatly enlarged, covers most of the periotic
38. Infraorbital canal length: (0) relatively short, extending from level of P4 to M1; (1) elongated, extending from level of P2 to M2
39. Fossa at anterior edge of orbit (a deep, sharp-edged, funnel-shaped cavity that houses the lacrimal foramen and posterior end of the infraorbital canal): (0) absent; (1) present
40. Fusion of 7th cervical and anterior thoracic vertebrae: (0) C7 not fused to T1; (1) C7 and T1 fused; (2) C7 and T1-2 fused; (3) C7 and T1-3 fused
41. Fusion of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (to form what is often termed a lumbar "shield" or "tube," consisting of tenth and eleventh thoracic and all but the last one or two lumbar vertebrae): (0) lumbar "shield" absent; (1) lumbar "shield" present
42. Number of unfused posterior lumbar vertebrae: (0) all lumbar vertebrae free and unfused; (1) only last two lumbar vertebrae unfused; (2) only last lumbar vertebra unfused
43. Shape of manubrium of sternum: (0) not expanded laterally; (1) expanded laterally and posteriorly into platelike structure
44. Shape of ribs: (0) normal, not expanded or fused; (1) broadly expanded but not fused to one another; (2) coalesced with each other and with sternum, especially ventrally
45. Length of caudal vertebrae 3 through 6: (0) not elongated; (1) greatly elongated
46. Proximal end of femur: (0) not sharply bent laterally; (1) sharply bent laterally
47. Shape of femur head: (0) rounded; (1) squarish
48. Greater and lesser trochanters of femur: (0) unreduced, typical for bats; (1) moderately reduced; (2) highly reduced
49. P3 size: (0) normal; (1) greatly reduced; (2) absent
50. p2 size: (0) normal, about equal to p3; (1) greatly reduced