Table of Contents
SAM NOBLE OKLAHOMA MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY
FOSSIL BATS OF THE AMERICAS

Buda

The Buda LF was found in a limestone mine 8 km southwest of High Springs, Alachua County in northern Florida. The Buda LF occurred in a clay-filled paleokarst deposit formed in Eocene marine limestone. Frailey (1979) reported 12 taxa of large mammals from the Buda LF: five carnivores (the amphicyonid Daphoenodon notionastes and the canid Bassariscops achoros, both described as new species, the canid Cynarctoides sp., a mustelid, and a nimravid); two perissodactyls (the small chalicothere Moropus sp. and an indeterminate equid); and five artiodactyls (the tayassuid Cynorca, a phenacocoeline oreodont, two camelids, and the hypertragulid Nanotragulus loomisi). Wang et al. (1999) re-examined the canid sample from Buda and recognized three species: Phlaocyon achoros, Cynarctoides lemur, and Cormocyon cf. C. copei. Coombs et al. (2001) referred the small Buda chalicothere to Moropus cf. M. oregonensis, a species also known from the early late Arikareean of Oregon and Texas. Buda also has a significant small mammal fauna that remains mostly unstudied. Rich and Patton (1975) reported an isolated lower molar of the erinaceine hedgehog Amphechinus from Buda, which Hayes (2000) recently reidentified as the erinaceid Parvericius. Other small mammals from Buda include a new apatemyid, the geolabidid insectivore Centetodon cf. C. magnus, and three rodents, the geomyoid Texomys, the large eomyid Arikareeomys, and the heteromyid Proheteromys. The only bat fossil from Buda is an upper molar of the same new genus of emballonurid present in I-75 and Brooksville 2.

Frailey (1979) regarded the Buda LF as late Arikareean and Tedford et al. (1987), Albright (1998), and Hayes (2000) placed this site in the early late Arikareean (Ar3, 22-24 Ma). However, most of the age-diagnostic mammals from Buda are indicative of an Ar2 age, including: an undescribed apatemyid, Centetodon cf. C. magnus, the canids Cynarctoides lemur and Cormocyon cf. C. copei, the eomyid rodent Arikareeomys, and the tiny artiodactyl Nanotragulus loomisi. Apatemyids are otherwise unknown after the Whitneyan in North America (West 1973). The youngest records of Centetodon are from the Wounded Knee Fauna of South Dakota (Lillegraven et al. 1981) and the McCann Canyon LF of Nebraska (Korth 1992), both of which are correlatives of the Ar2 Monroe Creek Fauna. The canid fauna from Buda most closely resembles early Arikareean canids from the John Day Formation in Oregon (Wang et al. 1999). The type locality for Arikareeomys, the McCann Canyon LF, and the other Florida records of Arikareeomys, are all considered Ar2 faunas. Nanotragulus loomisi from Buda and Brooksville 2 is most similar to N. loomisi from early Arikareean faunas in the Great Plains (Hayes, 2000). Although the presence of Daphoenodon and Moropus from Buda is suggestive of a late Arikareean age, the first appearance of these two genera in western North America may have been during the “medial” Arikareean hiatus (between 27 and 22 Ma) in the classic Arikareean sequence from the northern Great Plains (Tedford et al. 1996). Most mammals from Buda indicate an Ar2 age, with the occurrence of Daphoenodon, Moropus, and Texomys suggesting this fauna may be very late in the early Arikareean (latest Ar2, 23-24 Ma).