FOSSIL BATS OF THE AMERICAS
Notonycteris magdalenensis [image ]
Type specimen: University of California Museum of Paleontology 39962, partial left dentary with m1 (and originally partial m2; now lost) and alveoli for c1 and premolars.
Type Locality and Horizon: Monkey locality, vicinity of Villavieja, Huila Department, Colombia; La Venta fauna; middle Miocene (Laventan); Monkey Beds, Villavieja Formation.
Diagnosis (from Savage 1951): Molar teeth slightly larger than in Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas) or in Chrotopterus auritus (Peters) but much smaller and less laterally compressed than in Vampyrum spectrum (Linnaeus); premolar formula and orientation apparently same as in Vampyrum, but with moderate obliquity of protoconid-metaconid line and eccentricity of trigonid cusps as in Chrotopterus and in contrast to both Phyllostomus (no obliquity and eccentricity) and Vampyrum (extreme obliquity and eccentricity); limb bones smaller but otherwise inseparable from those of Vampyrum.
References: Savage 1951; Czaplewski 1997
Notonycteris sucharadeus [image ]
Type specimen: INGEOMINAS Geological Museum-Kyoto University 9305, complete left m1 in small fragment of the dentary bone.
Type Locality and Horizon: Chepe site (Cuzco), northeast of Villavieja, Huila Department, Colombia; La Venta fauna; middle Miocene (Laventan); uppermost part of Las Lajas Member, Villavieja Formation.
Diagnosis (from Czaplewski, Takai, et al. 2003c): A Notonycteris smaller than Notonycteris magdalenensis, the only other species of the genus. Dimensions of the m1 in N. sucharadeus are about 77% to 84% of those in N. magdalenensis; measurements of the m2 are about 71% to 76% of those in N. magdalenensis.
Tonatia sp. or Lophostoma sp. [image ]
San Nicolás, Huila Department, Colombia; middle Miocene (Laventan); Monkey Beds, Villavieja Formation (Czaplewski 1997).
Palynephyllum antimaster [image ]
Type specimen: Museo Geológico de INGEOMINAS (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones en Geociencias, Minería y Química) IGM 252971, right M1 or M2.
Type Locality and Horizon: IGM-Duke Univ. locality 22, near San Nicolás, Huila Department, Colombia; La Venta fauna; middle Miocene (Laventan); Monkey Beds, Villavieja Formation.
Diagnosis (from Czaplewski, Takai, et al. 2003c): M1 or M2 small; talon and hypocone absent; lingual outline in occlusal view nearly semicircular; lingual cingulum absent; W-shaped ectoloph relatively primitive by comparison with most extant Glossophaginae (including Lonchophyllini), with relatively strong paracone and metacone, moderately reduced stylar shelf, short, anteriorly hooked parastyle, low and slightly elongate mesostyle formed in part by small gap between the labial ends of the postparacrista and premetacrista; styles do not bulge labially except for labial cingulum posterior to parastyle; slight crest posterior to mesostyle continuous with labial cingulum anterior to metastyle.
References: Czaplewski 1997; Czaplewski, Takai, et al. 2003c.
Type Specimen: Instituto de Zoología, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 344.2, cranium with most of braincase, left zygomatic arch, both P4s, and left M1.
Type Locality and Horizon: Cueva del Centenario de Lenin, Punta Judas, Yaguajay, Provincia de Las Villas, Cuba; Quaternary; cave deposits.
Diagnosis (from Woloszyn and Silva Taboada 1977): Un Artibeus similar a A. lituratus en construcción y proporciones generales del cráneo, pero sin procesos pre- y postorbitales; intermedio en tamaño entre A. l. palmarum y A. l. fallax; sin proyecciones laterales en la región postpalatina; molares 2/3.
Type Specimen: Department of Mammals, American Museum of Natural History 40925, nearly complete cranium with left M1, right M2, and both M3.
Type Locality and Horizon: Cueva Catedral, near Morovis, Barahona District, Puerto Rico; Quaternary; cave deposits.
Diagnosis (from Anthony 1917b): Closely related to Phyllonycteris poeyi but noticeably larger, with wider braincase and heavier dentition.
Cueva de Clara (also known as Cueva Obscura) and Cueva del Perro, both near Morovis, Barahona District, Puerto Rico; Quaternary; cave deposits (Choate and Birney 1968).
Burma Quarry, Antigua, Lesser Antilles; late Holocene; Holocene fissure filling of a solution cavity within the Oligocene marine limestone of the Antigua Formation (as P. cf. P. major; Pregill et al. 1988).
Type Specimen: Department of Mammals, American Museum of Natural History 41001, cranium with broken braincase and lacking incisors, two premolars, and right M3.
Type Locality and Horizon: Cueva de los Indios, Daiquirí, Provincia de Oriente, Cuba; Quaternary; cave deposits.
Diagnosis (from Anthony 1917a): Most like Phyllops haitiensis in general proportions and size of skull and also like P. falcatus, proportionally, but noticeably smaller. From both of these species P. vetus differs markedly in several important details. The teeth are smaller than in P. falcatus and the molars are proportionally wider anteroposteriorly than in this species. Distinguishable from P. falcatus by the smaller size of the skull in general and of the palate in particular, the more nearly parallel-sided palatal emargination, the presence of deep pits in the basioccipital region, and the cross section of M3 circular instead of oval. Phyllops haitiensis and P. vetus are of approximately equal size and more nearly resemble one another than do P. vetus and P. falcatus. Phyllops haitiensis, however, does not have the prominent basioccipital pits, the palatal emargination is V-shaped instead of U-shaped, and the sides of the emargination are not straight lines.
Cueva del Abuelo, Sierra de Caballos, Isla de Pinos, Cuba; Quaternary; cave deposits (Silva Taboada 1979).
Type specimen: Florida Museum of Natural History UF 94526, nearly complete braincase posterior to interorbital constriction, lacking only zygomatic arches, with associated left periotic.
Type Locality and Horizon: Haile 21A local fauna, Alachua County, Florida, USA; early Pleistocene (early Irvingtonian); clastic infillings of solution cavities in paleokarst developed within marine limestones of the Eocene Ocala Group.
Diagnosis (from Morgan et al. 1988b): Differs from other known species of Desmodus in possessing broad plate-like mastoid process, narrower occiput, lateral connection of nuchal crest to paroccipital process; and from all except D. draculae in nearly vertical orientation of supraoccipital, lack of inflation and ventral flexion of posterior portion of braincase, and posteriorly oriented foramen magnum with rounded dorsal margin. Desmodus archaeodaptes differs from D. rotundus in presence of larger glenoid fossa, reduced postglenoid process, smaller occipital protuberance, and weakly inflated supraoccipital; from D. stocki in smaller size, longer and narrower braincase, weaker cranial crests, ventrally deflected paroccipital process, shallow basicranial pits separated by low distinct ridge, and weakly inflated posteromedial process of basisphenoid; and from D. draculae in much smaller size.
Remarks: Includes Desmodus praecursor Ray et al. 1988, a nomen nudum.
Inglis 1A local fauna, Citrus County, Florida, USA; late Pliocene (late Blancan) (Morgan et al. 1988b; Morgan 1991).
Haile 16A local fauna, Alachua County, Florida, USA; early Pleistocene (early Irvingtonian) (Morgan et al. 1988b; Morgan 1991).
Type specimen: Sección de Paleobiología, Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela, MUSB 152-85 PB, skull and partial postcranial skeleton.
Type Locality and Horizon: Cueva del Guácharo, Monagas state, Venezuela; Quaternary (late Pleistocene or Holocene); at surface on floor of cave.
Diagnosis (from Morgan et al. 1988b): A Desmodus larger than any other known form (greatest length of skull more than 31 mm versus 27.4 maximum for D. stocki, length of humerus 51 mm vs. 47.5 maximum for D. stocki), but skull more slender and delicate. Mandible with ventral border straight in lateral aspect and with pockets behind incisors virtually non-existent.
Toca dos Ossos, Município de Ourolândia, Bahia state, Brazil; Quaternary (late Pleistocene); in association with extinct megafauna (Cartelle and Abuhid 1994; Cartelle 1994).
Gruta de Loltún, Yucatán, Mexico; Quaternary (Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, ca. 10 ka); cave deposits (as D. cf. D. draculae; Arroyo-Cabrales and Ray 1997).
Toca da Boa Vista, Município do Campo Formoso, Bahia state, Brazil; Quaternary (late Pleistocene or Holocene); at surface on floor of cave (Czaplewski and Cartelle 1998).
Caverna Santana, near Iporanga, São Paulo state, Brazil; Quaternary (late Pleistocene or Holocene); at surface on floor of cave (Trajano and deVivo 1991).
Cebada Cave, Chiquibul Cave System, Belize; Quaternary (late Pleistocene or Holocene); at surface on floor of cave (Czaplewski et al. 2003a).
Centinela del Mar, General Alvarado County, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina; latest Holocene (approximately 260-290 radiocarbon years before present; ca. 300 calendar years ago); in a Holocene crotovina intruding late Pleistocene sediments (as D. cf. D. draculae; Pardiñas and Tonni 2000).
Type Specimen: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, former California Institute of Technology Museum of Paleontology collection, LACM (CIT) 3129, cranium lacking post-incisor dentition on the left side, zygomatic arches and auditory bullae.
Type Locality and Horizon: Cueva de San Josecito, near Aramberri, Nuevo León state, México; late Pleistocene (late Rancholabrean); cave deposits.
Diagnosis (from Jones 1958): Resembling the Recent Desmodus rotundus but differing from it as follows: Skull larger, heavier and more massive; rostrum and braincase relatively as well as actually broader, interorbital region relatively more constricted; braincase more rounded (less elongate) as viewed from above; nasals less concave in lateral view; narial vacuity broader in relation to greatest length of skull, more nearly heart-shaped; palate broad, less concave medially; mesopterygoid fossa relatively and actually broader anteriorly, the sides nearly parallel; zygomatic arches less rounded in outline, appearing broader owing to the more constricted interorbital region.
Dentition larger and heavier than that in D. rotundus, but otherwise differing only slightly from it; upper incisor less concave on cutting surface; premolar and molar slightly less bladelike, with heavier roots.
The peculiar shape of the incisor of D. stocki is shared to some extent with Diaemus youngi, a Recent South American vampire. However, D. stocki does not otherwise resemble D. youngi, differing from it as follows: Skull larger and heavier; interorbital constriction much narrower; zygomatic arches less strongly bowed; skull less compact, more elongate; braincase and rostrum relatively much narrower in relation to greatest length of skull. Furthermore, specimens of D. stocki show no trace of the minute M2 attributed to D. youngi.
Remarks: Includes Desmodus magnus Gut 1959 as a junior synonym (Hutchison 1967; Morgan 1991).
Other records (summarized in Morgan 1991; and Arroyo-Cabrales and Ray 1997):
Pleistocene (Irvingtonian or Rancholabrean):
Haile 1A local fauna, NE of Newberry, Alachua County, Florida, USA.
Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean):
Cueva de La Boca, E of Santiago, Nuevo León, México (Arroyo-Cabrales and Ray 1997).
Cueva La Presita, near Matehuala, San Luis Potosí, México (Arroyo-Cabrales and Ray 1997).
Grutas de Loltún, Yucatán, México (Arroyo-Cabrales and Alvarez 1990).
Haile 11B local fauna, NE of Newberry, Alachua County, Florida, USA.
Arredondo 2A local fauna, SW of Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida, USA.
Reddick 1 fauna, Marion County, Florida (as Desmodus magnus, a junior synonym of D. stocki; Gut 1959).
Potter Creek Cave, Shasta County, California, USA (Hutchison 1967).
Rampart Cave, Mohave County, Arizona, USA.
Arkenstone Cave, Pima County, Arizona, USA (Czaplewski and Peachey in press).
U-Bar Cave, Hidalgo County, New Mexico, USA.
Little Thirty-eight Mine, Brewster County, Texas, USA.
New Trout Cave, Pendleton County, West Virginia, USA (Grady et al. 2002).
Cerro de Tlapacoya, SE of la Ciudad de Mexico, México (Alvarez 1972; Arroyo-Cabrales and Ray 1997).
San Miguel Island, Santa Barbara County, California, USA (Guthrie 1980).